The term programming paradigm is used to describe a particular approach or methodology used when programming. Different languages accomodate different paradigms. Some languages allow development using more than one paradigm or a mix of techniques.
Structured programming is described in the notes for Unit 1 - Structured Programming
Functional programming involves writing functions to solve problems, normally mathematical in nature. The program will use lists of values and functions that manipulate these values to provide a solution. Examples of languages include Haskell or F Sharp.
Logic programming means defining a set of facts and rules. The program uses this knowledge base and its inference engine to determine the solution to a problem. Prolog is an example of such a language and is explained in the Prolog section of the site.
Event-driven programming means programming the computer's response to events like a mouse click or keyboard entry. The program continues to execute in a system loop reacting to the events that have been programmed.
Examples include Java and C++. Object-oriented capability is found to some degree in most recent programming environments. In OOP, programmers develop and use objects in their programming. More in the next section.